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What is lungworm in dogs?

Lungworm is a type of parasitic worm — called Angiostrongylus Vasorum — which can affect dogs, foxes and badgers. It lives in the heart and blood vessels that supply the lungs.

Lungworm is described as an “emerging” disease, which means it’s gradually becoming more common. Traditionally, lungworm only appeared in certain “hot spots” in the south of England, but in recent years it has been identified in dogs in most of the UK. It’s unclear exactly what’s causing lungworm to spread — and that of other parasites such as ticks — but increased movement of pets around the country, as well as increasing contact between wildlife and the urban environment, is thought to have played a part.

Image of snail for Vets Now article on lungworm in dogs
Lungworm grows and develops in slugs and snails, and dogs become infected from eating these in the garden or out on walks

What should I do if my dog has lungworm?

Dog lungworm can be serious, potentially even fatal, if left untreated. If you’re worried it may be causing your pet to be sick contact your vet as soon as possible or, out of hours, find your nearest Vets Now pet emergency clinic or Vets Now 24/7 hospital. Once diagnosed and treated, most dogs will recover fully from lungworm. But the earlier the treatment, the better the prognosis.

Your lungworm questions answered - click to open

Are slugs poisonous to dogs?

Slugs and snails are not, in themselves, toxic to dogs but they do pose a threat as explained above. Dogs pick up the larvae that cause lungworm by eating infected slugs and snails or by drinking from puddles, eating grass or licking paving stones that slugs or snails have crawled along. So our advice is to try to restrict access to areas where slugs and snails are common and avoid leaving your dog’s toys and water bowl in the garden. But be careful if you decide to use slug or snail pellets to exterminate them. The chemical in these pellets, metaldehyde, is highly toxic to dogs.

Are there lungworm tablets for dogs?

Speak to your daytime vet about prescribing a regular worming treatment. These usually come in the form of tablets or spot-ons and are administered monthly. Be aware that not all wormers, particularly over-the-counter treatments, are effective against lungworm.

Can humans get lungworm?

There’s no evidence that dog lungworm can be transmitted to humans, although several other types of parasitic worm can. These include hookworms, tapeworms and roundworms. That’s why it’s so vital your dog regular receives worming treatment.

What is the best treatment for lungworm in dogs?

This is a question for your daytime vet who will know which parasitic worms are most prevalent in your local area. But rest assured it is relatively simple to kill worms using routine anti-parasite preventative treatments. The key is to act early.

Causes & Symptoms

What causes lungworm in dogs?

Unlike many other diseases, lungworm is not passed from dog to dog. The worm grows and develops in slugs and snails, and dogs become infected from eating these in the garden or out on walks. Infection can, in the most extreme cases, cause death.

Not every snail or slug carries the worm, and it’s much more common in southern parts of England than the rest of the UK. However, if your pet tends to eat snails or slugs, they are at risk. Ask your vet about the most common parasites in your area.

 

How is lungworm diagnosed?

Diagnosing lungworm can be difficult as it relies on finding evidence of worms in either the windpipe or faeces. To complicate matters, not finding the worms does not necessarily mean your dog is not infected.

Your vet is likely to carry out a number of diagnostic tests, such as taking blood and stool samples to see if any eggs or larvae are present. They may also conduct a chest x-ray or a bronchoscopy (camera down the windpipe).

 

What is fox lungworm?

Another type of lungworm — called Capillaria aerophila — that’s most commonly found in the airways of foxes can also infect dogs. Dogs typically become infected by drinking water or eating food that’s been contaminated with the worms’ eggs. These eggs typically hatch in the infected dog’s intestine before the larvae make their way into the lungs, causing coughing, persistent sneezing, and nasal discharge. It can take 40 days for the larvae to mature. Thankfully, treatment with antiparasitic medication is usually effective.

Treatment & Prevention

Lungworm treatment

Typically, lungworm does not require invasive or costly treatment if caught early. Killing the worm is relatively straightforward, and should only require a change in your regular parasite routine. This might be as simple as changing from one product to another.  However, if the symptoms are advanced or the level of infection is severe there is a greater likelihood of permanent damage.

Lungworm prevention

We would always recommend adding lungworm prevention treatment into your regular worming routine. Speak to your daytime vet about lungworm treatment and prevention from lungworm and, if you’re unsure how ‘at risk’ your dog might be, seek advice from your vet. They’ll know how common the problem is in your area and put in place the most appropriate plan for you and your pet. If you see slugs or snails in your garden, or in the areas you walk your dog, be vigilant and try to prevent your dog from swallowing them.