What is pyometra?
Pyometra is an infection of the uterus (womb). It’s a common condition in female dogs and cats that haven’t been spayed.
Each time a female dog has a season — usually about twice a year — she undergoes all the hormonal changes associated with pregnancy. This is regardless of whether she becomes pregnant or not. The changes in the uterus that occur during each season make infection more likely with age. A very common organism called E. coli, found in your dog’s faeces, usually causes pyometra. Injections with some hormones, either to prevent seasons or for treatment of other conditions, can increase the risk of pyometra developing.
Urgent treatment may be required if your dog has pyometra so please contact your vet as soon as possible or, out of hours, find your nearest Vets Now pet emergency clinic or Vets Now 24/7 hospital.
What are the signs and symptoms?
Pyometra is only seen in females as males do not have a uterus. The signs usually develop around four to six weeks after the female has finished bleeding from her last season. In some cases, the bitch may appear to be having a prolonged season.
If left untreated these signs will worsen to the point of dehydration, collapse and death from septic shock.
Diagnosis and treatment
Your vet will probably suspect your dog has pyometra based on your description of the signs and from their examination of your pet.
They may suggest procedures such as ultrasound and blood tests to confirm the diagnosis, rule out other possible causes, and to check that your pet is well enough to undergo treatment.
The treatment of choice for pyometra is surgery to remove the uterus. The operation is essentially the same as a routine spay.
However, there is more risk involved and a higher chance of complications when the operation is being carried out on a sick pet. Your dog will also be given intravenous fluids (a drip), antibiotics and pain relief.
Can I prevent pyometra?
Most dogs will make a full recovery after treatment for pyometra, if the condition is caught early. Spaying your dog before she develops a pyometra will prevent this condition occurring.
If left untreated, or if the dog has had a pyometra for a while before presentation, she may be septic (bacteria has gone into the bloodstream) and more prolonged hospitalisation and treatment may be required. In this situation the prognosis is usually worse.
Medical treatment using prostaglandins — hormones — along with antibiotics, is theoretically possible but rarely chosen. Risks and limitations of treatment with prostaglandins are:
- it’s only possible with an “open pyometra”, where pus is draining from the vulva — in a “closed pyometra” case where the cervix is closed treatment carries a risk of rupture and peritonitis (infection in the entire abdomen)
- it often results in signs of distress including restlessness, panting, vomiting, defecation, salivation, and abdominal pain
- it usually takes at least 48 hours for any noticeable improvements
- if your dog is severely ill at the time of diagnosis, she may die from blood poisoning before the prostaglandins have a chance to work
- the recurrence rate is high — around 60%
- your dog’s fertility will be affected — successful breeding only occurs in a small number of dogs following treatment
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